- How is waste oil used in Turkey?
Lubricant consumption in Turkey totals approximately 500,000 tons. Although lubricant consumption is stated as 720,000 tons according to records, it is estimated that 220,000 tons of this amount is offered to the market as fuel under the name of Number 10 Oil.
It can be estimated that approximately half of the national lubricant demand (approximately 250 thousand tons) becomes waste oil. It is estimated that 120 thousand tons of waste oil is waste motor oil while the rest is oils used in industries.
The amount of waste motor oil unaccounted for is approximately 100 thousand tons. The primary reason of unrecorded waste oil is that it is used as fuel in vehicles under the name of “Number 10 Oil”. Waste oils sold at roadsides under the name of Number 10 Oil after a simple bleaching process are blended with fuel and offered especially to diesel fuel market and have adverse effects on environment and human health.
- Could you give further information on the Association’s activities regarding the collection and disposal of waste oils and future projections?
Current figures of waste oil collection and operational data are provided in detail in ACTIVITY REPORTS.
Besides collecting and facilitating the disposal of waste motor oils since 2004, PETDER has been attending informative meetings across the country conducted by the Ministry of Environment and Forestry, Provincial Directorates of Environment or Municipalities and performing activities to raise public awareness through the use of written and visual media tools.
In order to inform the public of the new legislation, PETDER has placed calls to each waste generator across the country to inform them, all members and services have been informed through e-mail after the new Regulation entered into force.
Following the Authorization by the Ministry, PETDER shall continue its activities across the country more efficiently.
The monthly breakdown of the total annual amount of waste oil collected last year is approximately 1,250 ton/month. The primary target is to raise this amount to 2,000 tons.
- How do the practices in Turkey comply with EU legislation?
75/439/EEC EU Waste Oil Directive sets the framework for waste oil disposal. Countries are liable to establish their own policies within the framework of the directive and inform the Euroepan Union. Member countries employ various practices in line with the policies they have established provided that they remain within the framework of the directive. In this regard, while some countries prefer recovery of waste oils as energy due to high costs of refining plants, other countries like Germany encourage the establishment of advanced technology refining plants with EU support. While in general oil producers are not held responsible for the collection of waste oils, there are some countries where the producer is responsible for collection.
Regulation on Control of Waste Oils, issued on 21 January 2004 within the scope of the laws of harmonization to the European Union, was revised and brought into force again on 30 July 2008 as a result of the studies on country facts, expectations of the sector and “Turkish – German Twinning Project on Strengthening the Special Waste Management Capacity of Turkey”.
According to data regarding the amount of waste oil collected in European countries, the countries with highest rates of waste oil collection are the United Kingdom and Germany and the country with lowest rate is Greece. It is observed that 24% of the waste oils collected in European Union member countries is recovered as product, 48% is processed for recovery in the form of energy and 28% is not recorded. CONCAWE (Conservation of Clean Air and Water in Europe (Report no: 5/96)
Based on an estimation that the amount of waste oil generated annually in Turkey is 250 thousand tons, it is observed that approximately 14% is recorded. According to 2007 figures, 7% of waste oils collected is recovered as product, 7% is processed for recovery in the form of energy and 86% is not recorded.
The total number of Base Oil Refineries in European Union member countries is 20. In this regard, it is remarkable that there are 20 licensed Refining and Regeneration facilities in turkey.
“Waste Oil Reclaiming Activities”, performed and supported by EU member countries, is a structure under the umbrella of “Quality Assurance System” which imposes critical responsibilities on enterprises renovated with modern technology and undertaking production from waste oil. In this framework, in EU countries waste lubricating oils are to be processed only in industrial scale base oil refineries. It is necessary to implement a similar practice in Turkey.
- PETDER claims that it bears additional costs for collecting waste oils which others offer to pay for. Then, why does PETDER collect waste oil?
As per the provisions of the Regulation on Control of Waste Oils, it is a legal obligation that used motor oils are collected by motor oil producers or Authorized Institutions.
Collection of waste motor oils threatening environment and human health and facilitating disposal at licensed facilities regardless of amount or distance across the country, which are under the liability of the producer, has been regarded as a social responsibility project to which great importance is attached by companies participating in PETDER waste motor oil collection activities, and has been carried on since 2004 bearing substantial costs.
- There are those who offer to pay for our waste oil. Why do you not pay for waste oil?
Although only motor oil producers or Authorized Bodies are authorized to collect waste motor oils as per the Regulation, there are those who collect and offer to pay for waste motor oils. This is contrary the Regulation. The waste oils collected illegally are commonly used in mould lubrication, at vehicle services for heating purposes, at greenhouses and bakery ovens or in vehicles after mixed with fuel. Due to the habit formed throughout the years and excessive demand, a market has been generated where waste motor oil is bought and sold. We would like to remind that these activities are contrary the Regulation.
In addition, not only the collection, transportation and delivery of waste motor oils to licensed facilities within the scope of the Regulation is a costly undertaking, but also the waste oils need to be handled carefully as it is categorised as special waste. While waste motor oil generator, who is responsible for having the waste motor oil disposed as per the provisions in the Regulation, is not charged for this service, waste generator demands payment for the waste oil. What the service has is a waste and needs to be processed in accordance with laws. Therefore, it is not possible to make any payments to waste generators.
- What does PETDER do with the waste motor oils collected? Does PETDER sell waste motor oils? How does PETDER finance waste oil collection activities?
Waste motor oils collected with National Waste Transportation Form are delivered to nearest licensed facilities to be processed according to their categories (recovery as energy or product, or disposal).
A transportation and service fee is charged from Licensed Facilities for this service which is carried out free of charge and without making any payments to waste generators. Only a part of the expenses of the service provided across the country, regardless of amount or distance, for all waste oil generators using the motor oils produced by PETDER member companies is covered with these fees.
The rest of the organizational costs is divided among motor oil producers according to their annual motor oil sales figures.
- Why does Petroleum Industry Association Economic Enterprise collect waste motor oil?
“Regulation on Control of Waste Oils” issued in 2004 by the Ministry of Environment and Forestry, which has now been abolished, provides for proper registration, collection and disposal of waste motor oils that pose a threat to the environment and human health. The regulation holds the motor oil producers liable to collect and recycle the oil they produce after it is used. As per the regulation, those who import vehicles from abroad shall be responsible for the oil in the vehicle.
In order to fulfill their liabilities resulting from the Regulation, motor oil producers established Petroleum Industry Association Economic Enterprise on 12 April 2004 under the umbrella of Petroleum Industry Association of leading fuel, LPG and motor oil producers in Turkey, and signed a cooperation protocol with the Ministry of Environment and Forestry on 30 July 2004 for effective collection of waste motor oils.
PETDER was assigned by the Ministry as the Authorised Body to collect waste motor oils with the letter dated 2 September 2008, within the scope of the provisions of the New Regulation on Control of Waste Oils issued on 30 July 2008. Within this framework, waste motor oils are collected from all waste motor oil generators (vehicle services, fuel stations, municipalities and public institutions car care services) throughout the country.
- What are the effects of waste oils on the environment and human health?
Waste lubricating oils are classified as ecotoxic. Waste oils cause permanent ecological damage when dumped in nature in an uncontrolled manner. It causes air, soil and water pollution, thus harming the environment and human health.
Depending on the area of use, waste oils might contain varying levels of heavy metals like lead, zinc, barium, cadmium, mercury, chromium, arsenic and vanadium, besides contaminants such as detergents or phosphate. It is difficult to refine waste lubricating oils at domestic wastewater treatment facilities operating with biological treatment methods because of the heavy metals in waste oils and deformed chemical structure. For this type of wastes, biological treatment methods should be employed along with chemical treatment methods.
Waste motor oils must not be dumped onto soil or into water and must not be incinerated in uncontrolled environments!
In the water: Waste oils dumped in waterways form a slick covering on water surfaces which blocks sunlight, thus reducing photosynthesis and prevents oxygen feedback that enables the microorganisms impairing the oxygen cycle and feeding on oil to reproduce and grow. As a result, the oxygen that the fish, shellfish and other microorganisms in the aquatic foodchain require is consumed.
Waste oil dumped onto soil can seep through the soil into ground water.
1 litre of waste motor oil contaminates 800 thousand liters of drinking water.
Waste oils dumped into trash cans cause a pollution load in the leachate at the landfills making it more difficult to decontaminate the leachate. If poured into the drain, waste oils damage sewer pipes and cesspools.
On the land: Waste oils dumped onto soil might damage plants and cause reduction of soil products. Waste oils might contain high levels of heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, cadmium or chromium which accumulate in soil. Plants absorb high concentrations of heavy metals. Plants cannot grow in soil contaminated with waste oils. It might even result in the poisoning of the food chain, which ultimately affects human health.
In the air: Incineration of waste oils in uncontrolled environments can pollute the air we breathe with contaminants such as sulphur, chloride and heavy metals etc. which are potentially
harmful to human health.
- What is waste lubricating oil?
The term waste lubricating oil is used for lubricating oil that has become unsuitable for its original purpose and turned into waste. Some examples of waste oils are used gasoline engine, diesel engine, gearbox and differential, transmission, grease and other special vehicle oils, hydraulic system, turbine and compressor, slideway, open-closed gear, circulation, metal cutting and processing, metal extrusion, textile, thermal processing, heat transfer, isolation and laminating, transformer, mould, steam cylinder, pneumatic system, food and pharmaceutical industries, paper machine, bearing and other special industrial oils and industrial greaeses, thickening, protective, cleaning, and other special preparations and oils unfit for further use.